害羞、婚姻溝通和婚姻滿意度的相關研究

2018-06-05 08:29:04 55
简要说明 :
作者:蘇素美
文件版本 :
2017.12
文件类型 :
PDF
下载密码 :
96xl
立即下载
蘇素美
國立高雄師範大學師資培育中心


本研究以婚姻的「脆弱-壓力-適應」模式去探討害羞、婚姻溝通和婚姻滿意度的關係。選取366位已婚者為研究對象,以「害羞量表修訂版」、「婚姻溝通量表」及「婚姻滿意度量表」為研究工具,採用結構方程模式進行分析。主要研究結果為:(1)害羞對婚姻溝通有負向的直接效果,顯示害羞特質對婚姻溝通會有負向的影響。(2)婚姻溝通對婚姻滿意度有正向的直接效果,顯示婚姻溝通可以正向的預測婚姻滿意度,婚姻溝通愈良好的個體,對婚姻的滿意度愈高。(3)婚姻溝通完全中介害羞和婚姻滿意度之間的關係,顯示害羞對個體婚姻滿意度的影響,完全是透過婚姻溝通而產生的。(4)男女生在害羞對婚姻溝通的徑路係數上有顯著差異,男生的徑路係數比女生更大,顯示害羞對男生的婚姻溝通之負面影響比女生要更為深遠。本研究結果證實了Karney和Bradbury(1995)所提出婚姻的「脆弱-壓力-適應」模式中「脆弱性」、「適應過程」和「婚姻品質」三個要素之間的關係,害羞此項持久性的弱點會影響個人在婚姻中的適應過程,而個體在婚姻生活中的適應過程,會影響到其對婚姻的滿意程度。本研究針對研究結果,對教育與輔導及未來的研究方向提出建議。

關鍵字
多群體分析、害羞、婚姻溝通、婚姻滿意度

參考書目
王以仁(2010):婚姻與家庭:配偶及家人間的溝通和調適。台北:心理出版社。[Wang, Y. J. (2010).
Marriage and family: the communication and adaptation of spouse and family. Taipei, Taiwan:
Psychological Publishing.]
伊慶春(1988):中國女性的婚姻與職業。載於文崇一、蕭新煌(主編),中國人:觀念與行為(229-248
頁)。台北 : 巨流。[Yi, Q. C. (1988). Marriage and occupation of Chinese women. In C. Y. Wen &
X. H. Xiao (Eds.), Chinese: Ideas and behaviors (pp.229-248). Taipei, Taiwan: Chuliu Publisher.]
利翠珊(1995):夫妻互動歷程之探討:以臺北地區年輕夫妻為例的一項初探性研究。本土心理學研
究,4,260-321。DOI : 10.6254/1995.4.260 [Li, T. S. (1995). On the interaction course of couple:
A case study of young couples in Taipei district. Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese
Societies, 4, 260-321.]
利翠珊(1997):婚姻中親密關係的形成與發展。中華心理衛生學刊,10(4),101-128。[Li, T. S.
(1997). The formation and development of marital intimacy. Chinese Journal of Mental Health,
10(4), 101-128.]
利翠珊(2005):婚姻關係及調適。載於楊國樞、黃光國、楊中芳(主編),華人本土心理學(331-
362 頁)。台北:遠流。[Li, T. S. (2005). Marital relationship and adjustment. In K. S. Yang, C. F.
Yang, & G. G. Huang (Eds.), Chinese native psychology (pp.331-362 ). Taipei, Taiwan: Yuan-Liou
Publishing.]
李良哲(1999):維繫婚姻關係重要因素的成人期差異初探。教育與心理研究,22(1),145-160。
[Li, L. Z. (1999). A preliminary investigation of adulthood differences in important elements of
maintaining marital relationships. Journal of Education & Psychology, 22(1),145-160.]
林佳玲(2000):夫妻依附風格、衝突因應策略與婚姻滿意度之相關研究。國立臺灣師範大學教育
心理與輔導研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。[Lin, C. L. (2000). Attachment styles, conflict-
coping strategies and marital satisfaction in married couples. Unpublished master’s thesis, National
Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.]
曹中瑋(1985):自我狀態、夫妻溝通型態與婚姻滿意度之相關研究。臺北師專學報,12,1-63。
[Cao, Z. W. (1985). A study on the relationships among ego state, couples communication patterns
and marital satisfaction. Journal of Taipei Junior Normal College, 12, 1-63.]
陳 皎 眉、 江 漢 聲、 陳 惠 馨(1996): 兩 性 關 係。 台 北: 空 大。[Chen,  J.  M.,  Chiang,  H.  S.,  &
Chen, H. S. (1996). Gender relations. Taipei, Taiwan: the National Open University.]
曾红(2014):“要求 / 退缩”型婚姻沟通方式的跨文化研究。暨南 学 ,36(2), 58-66。[Zeng, H.
(2014). A cross - cultural study of marital communication in demanding / retiring. Journal of Jinan
University, 36(2), 58-66.]
楊國樞(1988):中國人的蛻變。台北:桂冠。[Yang, K. S. (1988). The transformation of the Chinese
people. Taipei, Taiwan: Laurel Book.]
楊國樞(1992):中國人與自然、他人、自我的關係。載於文崇一、蕭新煌(主編),中國人:觀
念與行為(9-23 頁)。台北:巨流。[Yang, K. S. (1992). Chinese people and nature, others, the
relationship between self. In C. Y. Wen  & X. H. Xiao (Eds.), Chinese: Ideas and behaviors (pp.9-23
). Taipei, Taiwan: Chuliu Publisher.]
葉肅科(2000):一樣的婚姻,多樣的家庭。台北:學富文化。[Ye, S. K. (2000). Same marriage,
diverse families. Taipei, Taiwan: Pro-Ed Publishing.]
劉 惠 琴(1999): 女 性 主 義 觀 點 看 夫 妻 衝 突 與 影 響 歷 程。 婦 女 與 兩 性 學 刊,10, 41-77。 DOI :
10.6255/JWGS.1999.10.41[Liu, H. C. (1999). Marital conflict and influence process--From a
feminist perspective. Journal of Women and Gender Studies, 10, 41-77.]
謝銀沙(1992):已婚婦女個人特質、婚姻溝通與婚姻調適相關之研究。國立台灣師範大學家政教
育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。[Xie, Y. S. (1992). A study on the relationships among
personal traits, marital communication and marital adjustment in married women. Unpublished
master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.]
蘇素美、吳裕益(2008):害羞量表之修訂及其效度研究。教育與心理研究,31(4),53-82。[Su,
S. M., & Wu, Y. Y. (2008). A study on the revise of the Shyness Scale and its validity. Journal of
Education & Psychology, 31(4), 53-82.]
蘇素美、吳裕益(2014):害羞與婚姻親密度及寂寞之關係:以結構方程模式進行分析,輔導與諮
商學報,36(2),21-24。[Su, S. M., & Wu, Y. Y. (2008). A study on the relationships among
shyness, marital intimacy and loneliness: The analysis of structural equation modeling. The Archive
of Guidance & Counseling, 36(2), 21-24.]
Alfano, M. S., Joiner, T. E., & Perry, M. (1994). Attributional style: A mediator of the shyness-
depression  relationship?  Journal  of  research  in  Personality,  28,  287-300.  doi:  10.1006/
jrpe.1994.1021
Arbelle, S., Benjamin, J., Golin, M., Kremer, I., Belmaker, R. H., & Ebstein, R. P. (2003). Relation of
shyness in grade school children to the genotype for the long form of the serotonin transporter
promoter region polymorphism. American Journal of psychiatry, 160, 671-676. doi: 10.1176/appi.
ajp.160.4.671
Arroyo, A., & Harwood, J. (2011). Communication competence mediates the link between shyness
and  relational  quality.  Personality  and  Individual  Differences,  50,  264-267.  doi:  10.1016/
j.paid.2010.09.041
Arroyo, A., Nevárez, N., Segrin, C., & Harwood, J. (2012). The association between parent and adult
child shyness, social skill, and perceived family communication. Journal of family communication,
12, 249-264. doi: 10.1080/15267431.2012.686941
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural models. Journal of the Academy of
Marketing Science, 16, 74-94. doi: 10.1177/009207038801600107
Baker,  L.,  &  McNulty,  J.  K.  (2010).  Shyness  and  marriage:  Does  shyness  shape  even
established  relationship.  Personality  &  Social  Psychology  Bulletin,  36,  665-676.  doi:
10.1177/0146167210367489
Barelds, D. P. H. (2005). Self and partner personality in intimate relationships. European Journal of
Personality, 19, 501-518. doi: 10.1002/per.549
Baron,  R.  M.,  &  Kenny,  D.  A.  (1986).  The  moderator-mediator  variable  distinction  in  social
psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.51.6.1173
Baucom, B. R., & Eldridge, K. A. (2013). Marital communication. In A. L. Vangelisti (Ed.),  The
Routledge handbook of family communication (2nd Ed.)(pp. 65-79). New York, NY: Taylor &
Francis Group. doi: 10.4324/9780203848166.ch4
Bradbury,  T.  N.,  Cohan,  C.  L.,  &  Karney,  B.  R.  (1998).  Optimizing  longitudinal  research  for
understanding and preventing marital dysfunction. In T. N. Bradbury (Ed.), The developmental
course of marital dysfunction (pp. 279-311). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. doi:
10.1017/CBO9780511527814.011
Briggs, S. R., Cheek, J. M., & Jones, W. H. (1986). Introduction. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R.
Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp.1-14). New York, NY : Plenum
Press.
Browne, J. A., & Howarth E. (1977). A comprehensive factor analysis of personality questionnaire items:  
A test of twenty putative factor hypotheses. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 12, 399-427. doi:
10.1207/s15327906mbr1204_1
Bruch, M. A., Berko, E. H., & Haase, R. F. (1998). Shyness, masculine ideology, physical attractiveness,
and emotional inexpressiveness: Testing a mediational model of men's interpersonal competence.
Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 84-97. doi: 10.1037//0022-0167.45.1.84
Burleson, B. R., & Denton, W. H. (1997). The relationship between communication skill and marital
satisfaction: Some moderating effects. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 884-902. doi:
10.2307/353790
Burleson, B. R., & Denton, W. H. (2014). The association between spousal initiator tendency and partner
marital satisfaction: Some moderating effects of supportive communication values. The American
Journal of Family Therapy, 42, 141-152. doi: 10.1080/01926187.2012.754244
Buss, A. H. (1980). Self-consciousness and social anxiety. San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman and
Company.
Caprara, G. V., Steca, P., Cervone, D., & Artistico, D. (2003). The contribution of self-efficacy beliefs to
dispositional shyness: On social-cognitive systems and the development of personality dispositions.
Journal of Personality, 71, 943-970. doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.7106003
Carrol, S. J., Hill, E. J., Yorgason, J. B., Larson, J. H., & Sandberg, J. G. (2013). Couple communication
as  a  mediator  between  work-family  conflict  and  marital  satisfaction. Contemporary  Family
Therapy, 35, 530-545. doi: 10.1007/s10591-013-9237-7
Caspi, A., Elder, G. H., Jr., & Bem, D. J. (1988). Moving away from the world: Life-course patterns by
shy children. Developmental Psychology, 24, 824-831. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.24.6.824
Casten, K. M. (2004). Marital functioning and communication in a clinical sample of social anxiety
disorder clients. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA.
Caughlin, J. P., Huston, T. L., & Houts, R. M. (2000). How does personality matter in marriage?
An examination of trait anxiety, interpersonal negativity, and marital satisfaction. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 326-336. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.78.2.326
Chang, L. (2004). The role of classroom norms in contextualizing the relations of children’s social
behaviors  to  peer  acceptance.  Developmental  Psychology,  40,  691-702.  doi:  10.1037/0012-
1649.40.5.691
Chen, X. (2010). Shyness-inhibition in childhood and adolescence: A cross-cultural perspective. In K.
H. Rubin & R. J. Coplan (Eds.), The development of shyness and social withdrawal (pp. 213-235).
New York: Guilford.
Chen, X., & French, D. C. (2008). Children’s social competence in cultural context. Annual Review of
Psychology, 59, 591-616. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093606
Chen,  X.,  Rubin,  K.  H.,  &  Sun,  Y.  (1992).  Social  reputation  and  peer  relationships  in  Chinese
and  Canadian  children:  A  cross-cultural  study.  Child  Development,  63,  1336-1343.  doi:
10.2307/1131559
Chen, X., Wang, L., & Wang, Z. (2009). Shyness-sensitivity and social, school, and psychological
adjustment in rural migrant and urban children in China. Child Development, 80, 1499–1513. doi:
10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01347.x
Chen,  X., Yang, F.,  &  Wang,  L.  (2013). Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing
problems in Chinese children: Moderating effects of academic achievement. Journal of Abnormal
Psychology, 41, 825-836. doi: 10.1007/s10802-012-9708-6
Chi, P., Epstein, N. B., Fang, X., & Lam, D. O. B. (2013). Similarity of relationship standards, couple
communication patterns, and marital satisfaction among Chinese couples. Journal of Family
Psychology, 27, 806-816. doi: 10.1037/a0034113
Chou, K. L. (2005). Assessing shyness in Chinese older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 456-460. doi:
10.1080/13607860500142820
Christensen, A., Eldridge, K., Catta Preta, A. B., Lim, V. R., & Santagata, R. (2006). Cross Cultural
consistency of the Demand/Withdraw interaction pattern in couples. Journal of Marriage and
Family, 68, 1029-1044. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00311.x
Cohan, C. L., & Bradbury, T. N. (1997). Negative life events, marital interaction, and the longitudinal
course of newlywed marriage. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 114-128. doi:
10.1037/0022-3514.73.1.114
Coplan, R. J., Gavinski-Molina, M. H., Lagace-Seguin, D. G., & Wichmann, C. (2001). When girls
versus boys play alone: Nonsocial play and adjustment in kindergarten. Developmental Psychology,
37, 464-474. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.37.4.464
Coplan, R. J., Kingsbury, M., & Doey, L. (2014). Parlance, places, process, and paradox: Revisiting
the discussion of gender differences in childhood shyness. Sex Roles, 70, 309-314. doi: 10.1007/
s11199-014-0371-y
Coplan, R. J., Zheng, S., Weeks, M., & Chen, X. (2012). Young children’s perceptions of social
withdrawal  in  China  and  Canada.  Early  Child  Development  and  Care,  182,  591-607.  doi:
10.1080/03004430.2011.566328
Cuming, S., & Rapee, R. M. (2010). Social anxiety and self-protective communication style in close
relationships. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 87-96. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.09.010
Evans, M. A. (1993). Communicative competence as a dimension of shyness. In K. H. Rubin, & J. B.
Asendorpf (Eds.), Social Withdrawal, Inhibition and Shyness in Childhood (pp. 189-212). Hillsdale,
NJ: Erlbaum. doi: 10.4324/9781315806891
Falconier,  M.  K.,  &  Epstein,  N.  B.  (2011).  Female demand/male withdraw  communication  in
Argentinian couples:  A  mediating  factor between economic strain and relationship distress.
Personal Relationships, 18, 586-603. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6811.2010.01326.x
Filsinger, E. E., & Wilson, M. R. (1983). Social anxiety and marital adjustment. Family Relations, 32,
513-519. doi: 10.2307/583691
Flora, J., & Segrin, C. (1999). Social skills are associated with satisfaction in close relationships.
Psychological Reports, 84, 805-808. doi: 10.2466/PR0.84.3.803-804
Gilmartin, B. G. (1987). Peer group antecedents of severe love-shyness in males. Journal of Personality,
55, 467-489 doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1987.tb00447.x
Hanzal, A., & Segrin, C. (2009). The role of conflict resolution styles in mediating the relationship
between enduring vulnerabilities and marital quality. Journal of Family Communication, 9, 150-
169. doi: 10.1080/15267430902945612
Heavey, C. L., Christensen, A., & Malamuth, N. M. (1995). The longitudinal impact of demand and
withdrawal during marital conflict. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 797-801.
doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.63.5.797
Hebert, K. R., Fales, J., Nangle, D. W., Papadakis, A. A., & Gover, R. L. (2013). Linking social anxiety
and adolescent romantic relationship functioning: Indirect effects and the importance of peers.
Journal of Youth Adolescence, 42, 1708-1720. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9878-0
Heene, E., Buysse, A., & Van Oost, P. (2007). An interpersonal perspective on depression: The role of
marital adjustment, conflict communication, attributions, and attachment within a clinical sample.
Family Process, 46, 499-514. doi: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.2007.00228.x
Henderson, L., & Zimbardo, P. (1998). Encyclopedia of Mental Health: Shyness. San Diego, CA:
Academic Press.
Holley,  S.  R.,  Sturm,  V.  E.,  &  Levenson,  R.  W.  (2010).  Exploring  the  basis  for  gender
differences  in  the  demand-withdraw  pattern.  Journal  of  Homosexuality,  57,  666-684.  doi:
10.1080/00918361003712145
Jackson, T., Flaherty, S. R., & Kosuth, R. (2000). Culture and self-presentation as predictors of shyness
among Japanese and American female college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90, 475-482.
doi: 10.2466/PMS.90.2.475-482
Joiner, T. E. (1997). Shyness and low social support as interactive diatheses, with loneliness as mediator:
Testing an interpersonal- personality view of vulnerability to depressive symptoms.  Journal of
Abnormal Psychology, 106, 386-394. doi: 10.1037//0021-843X.106.3.386
Jones, W. H., & Russell, D. (1982). The Social Reticence Scale: A objective instrument to measures
shyness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46, 629-631. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4606_12
Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (1995). The longitudinal course of marital quality and stability : A
review of theory, method, and research. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 3-34. doi: 10.1037//0033-
2909.118.1.3
Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (1997). Neuroticism, marital interaction, and the trajectory of marital
satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1075-1092. doi: 10.1037//0022-
3514.72.5.1075
Kerr, M., Lambert, W. W., & Bem, D. J. (1996). Life course sequelae of childhood shyness in Sweden:
Comparison with the United States. Developmental Psychology, 32, 1100-1105. doi: 10.1037/0012-
1649.32.6.1100
Kim, M. (2013). The effect of marital intimacy, sex communication, and sexual satisfaction on the
marital satisfaction for Korean middle-aged women.  Journal of Next Generation Information
Technology, 4, 441-448.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford
Press. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2012.687667
Kurdek, L. A. (1995). Predicting change in marital satisfaction from husbands’ and wives’ conflict
resolution styles. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 153-164. doi: 10.2307/353824
Lawrence,  E.,  Pederson,  A.,  Bunde,  M.,  Barry,  R.  A.,  Brock,  R.  L.,  Fazio,  E.,  ...Dzankovic,  S.
(2008). Objective ratings of relationship skills across multiple domains as predictors of marital
satisfaction  trajectories.  Journal  of  Social  and  Personal  Relationships,  25,  445-466.  doi:
10.1177/0265407508090868
Leary, M. R. (1983). Social anxiousness: The construct and its measurement. Journal of Personality
Assessment, 47, 66-75. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4701_8
Leary,  M.  R.  (1986).  Affective  and  behavioral  components  of  shyness:  Implications  for  theory,
measurement,  and  research.  In  W.  H.  Jones,  J.  M.  Cheek,  &  S.  R.  Briggs  (Eds.),  Shyness:
Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 27-38). New York: Plenum Press.
Leary, M. R., & Buckley, K. E. (2000). Shyness and the pursuit of social of acceptance. In W. R. Crozier
(Ed.), Shyness: Development, Consolidation and change (pp.139-153). New York, NY: Routledge.
Litzinger,  S.,  &  Gordon,  K.  C.  (2005).  Exploring  relationship  among  communication,  sexual
satisfaction,  and  marital  satisfaction.  Journal  of  Sex  &  Marital  Therapy,  31,  409-424.  doi:
10.1080/00926230591006719
Luster, S. S., Nelson, L. J., & Busby, D. M. (2013). Shyness and communication: Impact on slf and
partner relationship satisfaction. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy, 12, 359-376. doi:
10.1080/15332691.2013.836322
Matsushima, R., Shiomi, K., & Kuhlman, D. M. (2000). Shyness in self-disclosure mediated by social
skill. Psychological Reports, 86, 333-338. doi: 10.2466/PR0.86.1.333-338
Meeks, B. S., Hendrick, S. S., & Hendrick, C. (1998). Communication, love and relationship satisfaction.
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 15, 755-773. doi: 10.1177/0265407598156003
Miller, R. S. (1995). On the nature of embarrassability:  Shyness, social evaluation, and social skill.
Journal of Personality, 63, 315-339. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1995.tb00812.x
Möller, K., & Stattin, H. (2001). Are close relationshis in adolescence linked with partner relationships
in midlife? A longitudinal, prospective study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25,
69-77. doi: 10.1080/01650250042000087
Montesi, J. L., Conner, B. T., Gordon, E. A., Fauber, R. L., Kim, K. H., & Heimberg, R. G. (2013). On
the relationship among social anxiety, intimacy, sexual communication, and sexual satisfaction in
young couples. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42, 81-91. doi: 10.1007/s10508-012-9929-3
Nelson,  L.  J.,  Padilla-Walker,  L.  M.,  Badger,  S.,  Barry,  C.  M.,  Carroll,  J.  S.,  &  Madsen,  S.  D.
(2008). Associations between shyness and internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and
relationships during emerging adulthood. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 37, 605-615. doi: 10.1007/
s10964-007-9203-5
Noller, P., & Feeney, J. A. (1998). Communication in early marriage: Responses to conflict, nonverbal
accuracy, and conversational patterns. In T. N. Bradbury (Ed.),  The developmental course of
marital  dysfunction  (pp.11-43).  New  York,  NY:  Cambridge  University  Press.  doi:  10.1017/
CBO9780511527814.003
Noller,  P.,  Feeney,  J.  A.,  Bonnell,  D.,  &  Callan,  V.  J.  (1994).  A  longitudinal  study  of  conflict
in  early  marriage.  Journal  of  Social  and  Personal  Relationships,  11,  233-252.  doi:
10.1177/0265407594112005
Olson, D. H., DeFrain, J., & Skogrand, L. (2011). Marriages families: Intimacy, diversity, and strengths
(7th Ed.) (pp.103-129). New York, NY: McGraw – Hill.
Olson, D. H., Olson-Sigg, A., & Larson, P. J. (2008). The couple checkup: Find your relationship
strengths. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.
Parade, S. H., Leerkes, E. M., & Blankson, A. N. (2010). Attachment to parents, social anxiety, and close
relationships of female students over the transition to college. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 39,
127-137. doi: 10.1007/s10964-009-9396-x
Paulhus,  D.  L.,  Duncan,  J.  H.,  &  Yike,  W.  S.  M.  (2002).  Patterns  of  shyness  in  East-Asian  and
European-heritage students. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 442-462. doi: 10.1016/S0092-
6566(02)00005-3
Pilkonis, P. A. (1977a). Shyness, public and private, and its relationship to other measures of social
behavior. Journal of Personality, 45, 585-595. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1977.tb00173.x
Pilkonis, P. A. (1977b). The behavioral consequences of shyness1. Journal of Personality, 45, 596-611.
doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1977.tb00174.x
Pilkonis, P. A. (1977c). Shyness: Public behavior and private experience.  Dissertation Abstracts
International, 37, 5442B.
Porter, E., & Chambless, D. L. (2014). Shying away from a good thing: Social anxiety in romantic
relationships. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70, 546-561. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22048
Prisbell, M. (1991). Shyness and self-reported competence. Communication Research Reports, 8, 141-
148. doi: 10.1080/08824099109359886
Richmond,  V.  P.  (1995).  Amount  of  communication  in  marital  dyads  as  a  function  of  dyad
and  individual  marital  satisfaction.  Communication  Research  Reports,  12,  152-159.  doi:
10.1080/08824099509362051
Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & Roach, K. D. (1997). Communication and decision-making styles,
power base usage, and satisfaction in marital dyads. Communication Quarterly, 45, 410-426. doi:
10.1080/01463379709370074
Romney, D. M., & Bynner, J. M. (1997). A re-examination of the relationship between shyness,
attributional  style  and  depression.  The  Journal  of  Genetic  psychology,  158,  261-270.  doi:
10.1080/00221329709596666
Schneewind, K. A., & Gerhard, A. K. (2002). Relationship personality, conflict resolution, and marital
satisfaction in the first 5 years of marriage. Family Relations, 51, 63-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-
3729.2002.00063.x
Tackett, S. L., Nelson, L. J., & Busby, D. M. (2013). Shyness and relationship satisfaction: Evaluating
the  associations  between  shyness,  self-esteem,  and  relationship  satisfaction  in  couples.  The
American Journal of Family Therapy, 41, 34-45. doi: 10.1080/01926187.2011.641864
Timm, T. M., & Keiley, M. K. (2011). The effects of differentiation of self, adult attachment, and sexual
communication on sexual and marital satisfaction: A path analysis.  Journal of Sex & Marital
Therapy, 37, 206-223. doi: 10.1080/0092623X.2011.564513
Weigel, D. J., & Ballard-Reisch, D. S. (2008). Relational maintenance, satisfaction, and commitment
in marriages: An actor-partner analysis.  Journal of Family Communication, 8, 212-229. doi:
10.1080/15267430802182522
Wenzel, A., Graff-Dolezal, J., Macho, M., & Brendle, J. R. (2005). Communication and social skills in
socially anxious and nonanxious individuals in the context of romantic relationships. Behaviour
Research and Therapy, 43, 505-519. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.03.010
Woszidlo, A., & Segrin, C. (2013). Negative affectivity and educational attainment as predictors of
newlyweds, problem solving communication and marital quality. The Journal of Psychology, 147,
49-73. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2012.674069
Zhao, J., Kong, F., & Wang, Y. (2013). The role of social support and self-esteem in the relationship
between shyness and loneliness. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 577-581. doi: 10.1016/
j.paid.2012.11.003
Zimbardo, P. G. (1977). Shyness: What it is, what to do about it. New York, NY: Addison Wesley.
Zimbardo,  P.  G.,  Pilkonis,  P.  A.,  &  Norwood,  R.  M.  (1975).  The  social  disease  called  shyness.
Psychology Today, 8, 69-72.


电话咨询
邮件咨询
在线地图
QQ客服
地址:抚顺市望花区新民街道昌图街27号楼4单元103室  手机:189-4030-0372   邮箱:qy1879@qq.com